Practical analysis for investment professionals
29 April 2021

Book Review: Valuation

Valuation: Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies, 7th Edition. 2020. McKinsey & Company, Tim Koller, Marc Goedhart, and David Wessels. Wiley.

What is “value”? This is a pressing question for investors: Turning investment theory into a successful value-oriented equity strategy has proved challenging over the last decade.

Tim Koller, Marc Goedhart, and David Wessels set out the core principles of valuation and offer a step-by-step guide to measuring the value of a company. This seventh edition of Valuation (the first was published in 1990) also addresses three factors challenging many value strategies today: the rising proportion of investments in intangible assets, the network effects enjoyed by dominant technology companies, and incorporating an environmental, social, and governance (ESG) lens in assessing value.

Subscribe Button

The core principles of business valuation are general economic rules that apply in all market conditions. The guiding principle is simple: “Companies that grow and earn a return on capital that exceeds their cost of capital create value.”

The authors argue that too many investors are using the wrong yardstick by focusing on earnings per share. In practice, “expected cash flows, discounted at the cost of capital, drive value,” the authors explain. What’s more, “the stock market isn’t easily fooled when companies undertake actions to increase reported accounting profits without increasing cash flows.” Indeed, rising accruals typically indicate that the company will post lower earnings in the future.

The book, originally written as a handbook for McKinsey & Company consultants, offers a how-to guide to valuation. The heart of the book is a series of step-by-step methods for calculating value using enterprise discounted cash flow (DCF) and discounted economic profit approaches. The authors assert that “a good analyst will focus on the key drivers of value: return on invested capital, revenue growth, and free cash flow.” Analysts should be ready to dig into the footnotes in order to “reorganize each financial statement into three categories: operating items, nonoperating items, and sources of finance.” Where can this ideal analyst be found? Detailed work on the scale described requires time and judgment. The authors cite the example of Maverick Capital as practitioners: They hold only five positions per investment professional, many of whom have covered the same industry for more than a decade.

Tile for Equity Valuation: Science, Art, or Craft?

I should make it clear: That is not me. My decade as an equity fund manager ended 20 years ago. Instead, I bring a multi-asset investor’s perspective to the practical lessons this book offers, of which there are plenty.

First, for companies that find a strategy for earning an attractive return on invested capital (ROIC), there is a good chance this above-market return will be sustained. In a study of US companies between 1963 and 2017, the top quintile of companies ranked by ROIC did see declining returns toward the mean, but they remained about 5% higher than the average 15 years later.

According to the authors, these “high-ROIC companies should focus on growth, while low-ROIC companies should focus on improving returns.” Growth is rarely a fix for low-return businesses. “In mature companies, a low ROIC indicates a flawed business model or unattractive industry structure.”

ROICs across industries are generally stable, so industry rankings do not change much over time.

Over the last 35 years, higher market valuations have been driven by steadily increasing margins and return on capital. For asset allocators, the higher valuations for US companies relative to other countries reflect higher ROIC.

Financial Analysts Journal Current Issue Tile

Businesses with the highest returns weave together a number of competitive advantages. The authors identify five sources of premium prices: innovative products; quality (real or perceived); brand; customer lock-in, such as replacement razor blades; and rational price discipline (avoiding commoditized products). And they identify four sources of competitive advantage on costs: innovative business methods (for example, IKEA stores); unique resources (in mining, North America’s gold is closer to the surface than South Africa’s and thus cheaper to extract); economies of scale; and network economics.

The second lesson is that sustaining above-average growth is much less common than sustaining superior returns. The authors note that “high growth rates decayed very quickly. Companies growing faster than 20 percent in real terms typically grew at only 8 percent within five years and at 5 percent within ten years.” Yet some sectors have consistently been among the fastest growing, including life sciences and technology. Others, such as chemicals, reached maturity well before the 1990s.

Third, analysts valuing rapidly growing internet and technology stocks should, according to the authors, “start from the future, . . . think in terms of scenarios, and compare economics of the business models with peers.” Doing so requires an estimation of what the future economics of the company and its industry might become. DCF remains the essential tool, offering a value under each of many possible scenarios. The greatest increases in value have been seen in those industries where the winner takes all. The authors state, “In industries with network effects, competition is kept at bay by the low and decreasing unit costs of the market leader.” Investors will need to take a 10- or 15-year view to put the right valuation on a fast-growing company, which often involves looking beyond mounting losses in the early stages.

Digital applications can offer obvious benefits to performance for all companies. McKinsey & Company identified at least 33 opportunities, from digital marketing to robotic process automation.

The Future of Investment Management

Fourth, the best owner of a business frequently changes over its life cycle. The authors explain, “A company . . . is likely to start up owned by its founders and may end its days in the portfolio of a company that specializes in extracting cash from businesses in declining sectors.” The chapter on corporate portfolio strategy provides a good framework for understanding the rationale for mergers, acquisitions, and divestitures.

Yet fifth, “one-third or more of acquiring companies destroy value for their shareholders, because they transfer all the benefits of the acquisition to the selling companies’ shareholders,” the authors state. Acquirers typically pay about 30% more than the preannouncement price. Still, acquisitions can create value, and this book offers six archetypes for successful deals.

In contrast, divestitures do typically add value, a sixth lesson. The authors note that “the stock market consistently reacts positively to divestitures, both sales and spin-offs. Research has also shown that spun-off businesses tend to increase their profit margins by one third during the three years after the transactions are complete.”

Finally, corporate strategy that tackles ESG issues can boost cash flows in five ways:

  1. Facilitating revenue growth
  2. Reducing costs
  3. Minimizing regulatory and legal interventions
  4. Increasing employee productivity
  5. Optimizing investment and capital expenditures

For example, one study found that gold miners with social engagement activities avoided planning or operational delays. Nor is a do-nothing approach cost free. Better performance on ESG issues reduces downside risk. For example, it can help avoid stranded assets. A strong ESG proposition can create more-sustainable opportunities, boosting DCF value.

ESG reporting, however, is not featured in the chapter on investor communications. I would urge the authors to address this issue in their next edition. Asset owners need to understand the impacts of their investments.

Ad tile for ESG and Responsible Institutional Investing Around the World: A Critical Review

In conclusion, neither the internet nor the rising focus on ESG issues has rendered obsolete the rules of economics, competition, and value creation. As the authors state, “The faster companies can increase their revenues and deploy more capital at attractive rates of return, the more value they create.”

This well-written book gives CEOs, business managers, and financial managers insights into the strategies they can use to create value and provides investors with tools to measure their success.

If you liked this post, don’t forget to subscribe to the Enterprising Investor.

All posts are the opinion of the author. As such, they should not be construed as investment advice, nor do the opinions expressed necessarily reflect the views of CFA Institute or the author’s employer.

Professional Learning for CFA Institute Members

CFA Institute members are empowered to self-determine and self-report professional learning (PL) credits earned, including content on Enterprising Investor. Members can record credits easily using their online PL tracker.

About the Author(s)
Robert N. Farago, ASIP

Robert N. Farago, ASIP, is head of strategic asset allocation at Hargreaves Lansdown in Bristol, United Kingdom. He previously served as head of thought leadership at Aberdeen Standard Investments and head of asset allocation at Schroders Private Bank.

7 thoughts on “Book Review: Valuation”

  1. Sumithra says:

    I have the 3rd edition and I consider this one of the best books for valuation.

    Curios to know if there are major changes from 3rd to 7th in terms of methodologies. Will not hesitate to buy if there are

  2. Ahmed Tariq says:

    Appears to be a bible for valuation. I had always taken Aswath Damodaran at that, but this one appears to be a very useful addition to the kit for those who want to fairly value tech companies and companies with high intangible assets.

    1. Maksat says:

      Agree. Damodaran and this book are the best publicly available sources on valuation. I would also add UBS Fundamental Analytics to the list, but this is not publicly available (only for their clients, and I had a luck to read through my work).

    2. Jörg Sebastian Söhn says:

      Damodaran’s approach and Koller’s are actually quite similar. If you combine Damodaran’s “Valuation” with “Dark Side of Valuation” + “Stories and Numbers” you will probably have a slightly better, more logical consistent way of valuing any company. Also more exotic ways, e.g. real options are covered at AD. Anyway, liked this valuation book a lot and it is definetly one of the best books on the topic.

      1. Chip Brown says:

        I liked the book; “good” but not “great”;theres a clear theme of “McKinsey BIAS” thorough the whole book.

        So I agree with you Jorg- I would only add “Investment Valuation” and since I haven’t not read it; exclude “Dark Side of Valuation”(have not read it).
        But i 100% agree.

        Personally, I would start withy the Level II CFA curriculum on Equity Asset Valuation; which is available in hard copy titled “Equity Asset Valuation” in its 4th Edition. I still utilize it weekly; the thirds edition added Industry Analysis (and Intro to Industry for L1) – In my opinion i feel the work think provides the most digestible and applicable framework of any DCF content available. FROM THERE once fully grasped- move up to Aswath(s) work(s) to flourish your research work-creating your versions of metrics empirically and instead of using net capex and changes in NWC in your reinvestment rate and model- using maintenance capex instead. You’ll need to fully grasp why, how , and where to make these adjustments in your model – the CFA LII and Aswath suite of works do just that.

  3. Duong Thang says:

    the book is about competitive strategy. this book confirm that MBA program is better than CFA program for stock investment. DCF is the last step to concrete the estimate of profits which is base on competition analysis, which is explained better in MBA program

  4. Erik says:

    Most definitions of EV used in practice : TEV is the value of core operations LESS non-operating.
    Koller et al define EV as: TEV is the value of core operations PLUS non-operating assets.

    How can that be?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *